By Julia Saltzman, SRC intern
Climate change is a hot topic today, not only in the world of science, but also in the world of politics and policy (Figure 1). Despite this fact, it has not been until recently that scientists have started to study the impacts of climate change on specific species. Because anthropogenic climate change is known to have important consequence across biologic communities, having and understanding of the nature and extent of species’ responses is crucial in modeling policy for effective environmental change (Cristofori Et. Al., 245). In the article, Climate-driven range shifts of the king penguin in a fragmented ecosystem, research is discussed which focuses on the upper-level predator, the king penguin, in one of the most rapidly changing ecosystems on the planet: the sub-Ant-arctic region.
The king penguin exhibits high levels of dispersal, and fragmented distribution. It has been suggested that the remarkably high migration rate among colonies can explain this. In order to test this hypothesis, researchers produced a genome-wide data set (Cristofori Et. Al., 246). including about 35,000 independent polymorphic loci genotyped in 163 individuals from 13 different locations covering most of the king penguin (Figure 2). Following the data collection, it was verified that the long-term relationship between paleohabitat reconstruction and the species’ past demography can be inferred from genomic data. Based upon this paleogenetic reconstruction, which allowed or analysis of location specific genomes, found that heterogeneous environmental changes lead to uncoupled effects on different crucial areas of the king penguins’ habitat.
Although this data gives highly complex insight into the genomic of the king penguin community across boundaries of fragmentation, it can tell scientists and policy makers really good information about the near-future scenarios which can project changes in these penguins’ range and population size. Although some scientists may suggest that the species can evolve overtime to adapt to anthropogenic climate change (figure 3), species fragmentation, and changes in resource partitioning, past data has found that due to the king penguins’ low genetic diversity and long generation time, the species is not expected to undergo any rapid adaptive evolution to new conditions in its range. Because species fragmentation and climate change go hand in hand, not only in the king penguins’ population, but in the overall ecosystem of the earth, this data collection methodology and results can give insight into the effect of habitat fragmentation on species’ niche and genetic diversity. This data can be used collaboratively to help mitigate the effect of anthropogenic fragmentation which happens so frequently in a plethora of ecological niches.
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Weintraub, Karen. “Largest King Penguin Colony in the World Drops by 90%.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 31 July 2018, www.nytimes.com/2018/07/31/science/king-penguin-decline-antarctica.html.
Cristofari, R., Liu, X., Bonadonna, F., Cherel, Y., Pistorius, P., Le Maho, Y., … Trucchi, E. (2018). Climate-driven range shifts of the king penguin in a fragmented ecosystem. Nature Climate Change. doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0084-2