Shark Tagging with South Broward High School

By Jon Dorsey, RJD Intern

Today the RJD crew met at the dock nice and early to welcome our shipmates from South Broward High School and special guest Steve Cooke. Despite the long bus ride and early arrival time, the Reef Dogs were in high spirits once they arrived on the dock and boarded Captain Curt’s boat. We had a long trip ahead of ourselves to a site named the Middle Grounds in Everglades National Park, but without the blazing sun beating on us and the cooler weather coming in, it was more than enjoyable.

Anticipation was high as we anxiously pulled in 6 empty lines, but of course on lucky number 7 the timer was popped! Leann did a great job pulling the Lemon Shark up onto the platform and the team immediately went to work. The students took turns collecting data and measurements for the team and before we let the little guy go we got the opportunity to sneak in some pictures.

The crew bring the final lemon shark of the day on deck to pose for a group shot.

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The Effects of Climate Change on Top Predator Distribution

by Jon Dorsey, RJD Intern

Climate change is a major concern that has been facing humankind for quite some time. Sea surface temperatures are predicted to rise between 1 – 6 degrees Celsius by 2100 and the consequences of this world-wide climate alteration include a loss of species richness, habitat shifts, and certain species endangerment. To measure the potential changes in habitat shifts of marine predators, the Tagging of Pacific Predators (TOPP) program designed an experiment where they would tag different Pacific marine predator species and track their behavior and migration patterns from 2000 – 2009. Along with the species tracking, they used functions of sea surface temperatures, chlorophyll A, and bathymetries to consolidate models that could allow the prediction of major marine predator habitat changes up until the year 2100. With this collected data, baselines would be set for which species require special management and which critical ecosystems are most at risk.

This diagram depicts the relative densities of top predators from 2001 -2009 In the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

The TOPP program chose to follow top predators because of the essential role they play in their environments. These predators provide a system of top-down control of ocean food webs and chains. Therefore, when a species is removed due to an environmental change, the stability of that marine ecosystem is jeopardized due to the resulting changes in the trophic cascade. The TOPP program collected sufficient results from 15 predator species and analyzed their individual tracks. Patterns in biodiversity indicated a northward movement in the core habitat, as a result of the northward swing of the NPTZ (North Pacific Transition Zone) and the richness decreased by 20%. In order to acclimate to these habitat shifts, predators were forced to live in unfamiliar environments in which not all of the species adapted well.

Predators within the shark, marine mammal, and turtle guilds have all shown declines in their new potential core habitats. The shark guild showed the most radical pelagic habitat loss with 3 out of every 4 species showing declines. Other species such as loggerhead turtle and blue whales also exhibited declines in their core habitats. One potential explanation is that these species have a lower capacity for adaptation due to their specialized diets. Their new environments may not cater to their specific diets which can cause an improper balance of nutrients in their diets. These decreases are alarming and it forces us to come up with potential ways to maintain stable predator populations.

These graphs display the predicted quarterly changes of population density for the tagged marine predators over the next century.

A primary way to maintain a healthy ecosystem should be to implement a system of marine ecosystem conservation and manage it proactively. The effects and rates of how the climate changes will impact different ecosystems will not be uniform. Therefore, it is crucial that we identify biodiversity hotspots that are at risk. Due to the shifting habitats, protected areas that would be oriented to transient oceanic features are being proposed. What this means is that areas where eddies, fronts, and upwellings are known to exist will be under a protected law due to the unstable and ever-changing dynamics. Climate change is a phenomenon affecting the whole planet and we must take preventative actions and develop recovery plans to protect the top predators that play vital roles in maintaining equilibrium in the marine environment.


Hazel, E et al. (2012). Predicted habitat shifts of Pacific top predators in a changing climate. Nature Climate Change

Biscayne National Park’s Coral Nursery Club: working to protect Florida’s coral reefs

by Jonathan Dorsey, RJ Dunlap Marine Conservation Program intern

Coral transplanted into Biscayne National Park reefs

Biscayne National Park on the southeastern tip of Florida is 95% underwater. The bay consists of many types of coral species that may be in harm’s way. While these delicate reef structures struggle with warming waters, disease, and physical assaults from boaters, divers, and anglers, volunteers at the park are working to preserve them by designing coral nurseries.

The Coral Nursery Club was founded by the park rangers of Biscayne National Park in 1993. This is a non-profit organization that has three goals in mind: 1) To rescue coral fragments resulting from inadvertent vessel groundings in Park waters, 2) To develop and maintain a supply of natural coral colonies with a diversity that reflects natural conditions in the Park, and 3) To provide a platform for community volunteers to participate and learn the intricacies of coral reef management and restoration.

When the rangers hear of a boat grounding that took place in the bay, they take volunteers to go scavenge the reef for scraps for coral that were broken off or damaged. Using special adhesives, the rangers glue these coral fragments onto small spokes and further places into a long row underneath the dock at Adam’s Key. Then to monitor, the rangers take more volunteers out to photographing the collected samples, checking for growth and rejuvenation. By comparing these new pictures to the old ones, researchers are able to calculate the polyp growth rate and they take note of seasonal variances.

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