Fishing for Answers: Learning About Fishery Research Volunteers Through Surveys

By Oliver Topel, SRC Intern

Today’s blog revolves around a group of researchers who interviewed volunteers from the California Collaborative Fisheries Research Program (CCFRP). Their paper, “Long-term participation in collaborative fisheries research improves angler opinions on marine protected areas,” examines how the volunteers’ time in the program impacts their views on marine protected areas (MPAs). The survey showed a clear relationship between time as a volunteer and perceptions of marine resource value and fishery management. 

Let’s start with a quick little history lesson, shall we? In 1999, California passed the Marine Life Protection Act, which directed the state to increase the protection of their local marine habitats, which led to several marine-focused organizations coming together under this unifying law, and in 2006 the CCFRP was created. The California Collaborative Fisheries Research Program monitors groundfish populations, such as rockfish, groundfish, skates, and rays. It uses the data collected to make future predictions of species diversity and catch rate. According to the article, “Between 2007 and 2016, CCFRP annually surveyed four sets of MPAs along the central coast including Año Nuevo State Marine Reserve (SMR), Point Lobos SMR, Piedras Blancas SMR, and Point Buchon SMR” (Mason et al., 2020).  

While the benefit of the CCFRP is more than evident, what’s not as clear-cut as the volunteers’ perception of the work they do. This where the survey comes in. To conduct this experiment, the researchers distributed a 29-question survey to 722 volunteer anglers in CFRP. The survey consisted of several different types of questions, such as multiple choice and ordinal scale. They were distributed through email in the Spring of 2018 (Mason et al., 2020). The questions themselves ranged from being about CCFRP, MPAs, and personal demographic data about the individual taking the survey. Despite so many recipients, only 15% of the volunteers completed and sent in their survey. A majority of the responses were positive, with volunteers not only believing that the CCFRP is a beneficial organization but that they have learned from and contributed to the work the organization does. To learn more about these results, you can look at Figures 2-4 below.  

Figure 1: From Mason et al. (2020, pg. 2): “Marine Protected Areas in central California monitored by CCFRP between 2007 and 2016”


Figure 2: From Mason et al. (2020, pg. 15): “Predicted probability of CCFRP volunteer anglers having an opinion change on MPAs relative to time”

Overall, this article portrays who CCFRP volunteers are and how they have been affected by the program. Results show that positive change in opinion became significant after an extended time with the program (sometimes up to 7+ years) (Mason et al., 2020). Hopefully, this article, and maybe even this blog, encourages people to volunteer with programs such as the CCFRP and put some real-time in, and you might even have a change of viewpoint.


Work cited

Mason ET, Kellum AN, Chiu JA, Waltz GT, Murray S, Wendt DE, Starr RM, Semmens BX. 2020. Long-term participation in collaborative fisheries research improves angler opinions on marine protected areas. PeerJ 8:e10146. DOI 10.7717/peerj.10146

How Engine Noise Can Protect Marine Protected Area

By Konnor Payne, SRC intern

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are internationally recognized areas of the ocean, with laws in place to protect natural or cultural resources. For instance, the Great Barrier Reef, where goals are to conserve endangered or commercially viable species, promote ecosystem health, and restore species diversity. As of 2018, there were 13,000 MPAs worldwide, contributing to approximately 6.6% of the world’s oceans (Kline et al., 2020). In theory, MPAs provide a haven for habitats of great significance, but in practice, surveying the area to ensure this is costly and resource-demanding. To ensure the laws in an MPA are upheld, either manned surface patrols or aerial patrols are required. Strong enforcement of MPA laws have been associated with a rapid increase in the numbers and density of otherwise targeted species (Kline et al., 2020). However, most methods of monitoring cannot be used every hour of every day, which leaves the MPAs susceptible to illegal fishing and pollution. 

This Marine Protected Area in Australia serves as a sanctuary for the species that live there. (Riccardo Trimeloni via

In this study led by Dr. Kline, a research team proposes a cost-effective and efficient solution to protecting our MPAs. The study tests a passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) system using three acoustic recorders (Soundtrap 3000) which can detect the acoustic signatures produced by the propeller blades and engines of boats. The PAM system was installed in Australia within Cod Grounds Marine Park (CGMP) and Solitary Islands Marine Park National Zone (SIMP NPZ), chosen for their proximity to boat ramps and significant vessel usage. Illegal fishing is known to occur here, as these locations are home to snapper, pearl perch, and yellowtail kingfish (Kline et al., 2020). From July 1st to September 12th, 2018, the PAM recorded the sounds of 41 vessels within CGMP and 34 vessels within SIMP NPZ. By analyzing the acoustics picked up in the water, the researchers could give a rough generalization of the size and behavior of the vessels recorded. They could only accomplish this with strong enough acoustic signatures, which likely excluded vessels that were drowned out by biological noises. 

Illegal fishing counteracts the goals of Marine Protected Areas (Tadeu Jnr via

Patrols were set to maximize vessel detection by being most active during holidays, weekends, lunar cycles, early mornings, and evenings, when infractions were most expected. However, the study found that the vessels within the CGMP in noncompliance were most active on Thursdays and Saturdays on a regular schedule between the hours of 6-11 am AEST. Within the SIMP NPZ, a similar consistent pattern was found on Thursdays between the hours of 3-6 pm AEST. These patterns indicate that people may be taking an extended weekend to capitalize on fishing from Thursday through the weekend (Kline et al., 2020). The incorporation of PAM systems in MPAs to provide the data of where and when illegal vessels are fishing coupled with manned patrols could significantly reduce the illegal activities and boost deterrence. If real-time acoustic systems could be utilized, the acoustic recorders could triangulate the location of vessels within MPA boundaries that would alert the park managers.  

Works Cited 

Jnr, Tadeu. Landscape Photography of Sailing Boat During Golden Hour.

Kline, L. R., DeAngelis, A. I., McBride, C., Rodgers, G. G., Rowell, T. J., Smith, J., … & Van Parijs, S. M. (2020). Sleuthing with sound: Understanding vessel activity in marine protected areas using passive acoustic monitoring. Marine Policy, 120, 104138.

Trimeloni, Riccardo. Body Wave of Water Near Rocks.